A crucial component of the sustainability of life is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). NAD, an essential cofactor present in all living cells, is responsible for cellular energy metabolism. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide assists enzymes in the work they do in the body. Multiple enzymes synthesize and metabolize palmitoylethanolamide. PEA belongs to the N-acylethanolamine (NAE) family. The phospholipids that comprise all membranes synthesize PEA. Membranes make up all cells, which is why PEA exists everywhere in the body and is available to every cell efficiently. PEA is more than just a cellular messenger relaying information throughout the body. It’s also a powerful solution to cellular needs. PEA is crucial to maintaining overall cellular health. The body naturally generates PEA when specific demands arise, including pain, physical and psychological stress, bacterial and viral infections, and inflammation.
The endocannabinoid system helps the body prepare to defend itself against stress, infections, inflammation, pain, and other forms of damage. The body produces two endocannabinoid molecules, 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), that act on the two cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. 2-AG has a chemical structure similar to that of PEA. Clinical studies reveal that PEA doesn’t bind cannabinoid receptors but impacts multiple cannabinoid receptors, including the classic cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. This interaction results in benefits such as chronic inflammation and chronic pain reduction, neuroprotection, and the modulation of mast cells. Mast cells, available throughout the body, are significant in allergies, inflammation, immunity, and neural health. Research suggests that PEA can prevent the recruitment of mast cells to damage sites in the body, as well as inhibit the degranulation of mast cells in pathological conditions. Studies demonstrate that mast cells become inactive when treated with PEA.
PEA activates PPAR-α, a transcription factor that regulates lipid, amino acid, and carbohydrate metabolism. PPAR-α is a vital protein that has fat-burning, energy-boosting, and anti-inflammatory qualities. Through the activation of PPAR-α, PEA stops the production of substances that cause inflammation and the activity of pro-inflammatory genes. PEA functions via many receptors. For instance, PEA directly impacts receptors like GPR119 and GPCR55, a process that produces results like that of the classic activation of the endocannabinoid receptors by phytocannabinoids. PEA impacts PPAR-γ and PPAR-δ, receptors related to PPAR-α. The way palmitoylethanolamide directly inhibits the FAAH and monoacylglycerol (MAGL) enzymes, which degrade AEA and 2-AG, allows these two endocannabinoids to generate continuous therapeutic action on CB2 receptors. Additionally, PEA acts indirectly on receptors associated with pain signal transfers.
Palmitoylethanolamide is noteworthy for its ability to block pain signals and transmission and deal with the direct underlying cause of pain. The body naturally produces this substance when it’s in pain, needs to alleviate inflammation, encourage cell recovery, or protect nerves. Clinical trials reveal the potential positive clinical effects of PEA associated with chronic pain conditions such as fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and lower back pain. A recent study investigated PEA effects on Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Ulcerative colitis and other conditions related to Irritable Bowel Syndrome have standard therapies for symptoms; supplementing standard therapies with PEA can be beneficial. Many painkillers are effective at reducing chronic symptoms, but in some cases, using them can result in serious adverse effects. Numerous studies demonstrated that using PEA concurrently with drugs similar to opioids to handle pain reduces the opioid dose significantly, which alleviated some of the drug’s side effects. Clinical trials involving human subjects that investigate the effects of PEA reveal that even when used long term, this substance is non-toxic and causes no adverse reactions or tolerance buildup. People can receive and improve their health with the safe and clean beneficial effects of PEA, such as anti-inflammatory pain alleviation without experiencing harmful consequences.
Clinical studies show that patients with chronic conditions have low PEA levels, making it difficult for them to receive anti-inflammatory, chronic, and neuropathic pain-soothing PEA effects. Decreased PEA levels are the result of PEA degradation by two enzymes, N-acylethanolamine acid amide hydrolase (NAAA) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Clinical studies reveal increased NAD levels in the body can restore human cells. Likewise, clinical studies suggest that increasing PEA levels increases its ability to act in the body and reduce the pain intensity of chronic pain and neuropathic pain. Taking PEA is essential as PEA needs time to build up in the body and reach potent levels. Case reports of the beneficial effects of PEA on pain management in patients who receive PEA continue to show promise. Dietary supplements that include PEA can reduce the pain intensity of neuropathic pain and chronic pain, allowing people to enjoy better physical health.